University of Virginia, Department of Computer Science CS200: Computer Science, Spring 2004

Notes: Friday 26 March 2004

• Monday, 29 March: Problem Set 6
• Problem Set 7 will be out on 29 March and due on 7 April.
• Problem Set 8 will be out on 7 April; part I will be due on 12 April, part II will be due on 26 April (last day of class).
• Exam 2 will be handed out on 14 April and due on 19 April.
Notes
Halting Problem Input: a procedure P (described by a Scheme program), and the input to that procedure
Output: true if applying P to input halts (finishes execution), false otherwise.

```(define (halts? procedure input) ...?...)
```
Proof Strategy
1. Show X is nonsensical.
2. Show that if you have A and B you can make X.
3. Show that you can make A.
4. Therefore, B must not exist.
For our halting problem informal proof:
• X = __________________________

• A = __________________________

• B = __________________________

Malicious Code Problem

Input: a procedure P
Output: true if P is would do something bad, false otherwise.

Assume we have a precise definition of what something bad means (for example, format your hard drive).

Is the malicious code problem decidable?

Hint:

```(define (halts? P input)
(is-virus? `(begin ((vaccinate P) input)
virus-code)))
```
Where (vaccinate P) evaluates to P with all mail commands replaced with print commands (to make sure (is-virus? P input) is false.

Using the strategy above:

• X = __________________________

• A = __________________________

• B = __________________________

Is it possible to write a virus scanner that identifies all malicious code? (tricky, think carefully)

What is a model?

What do we need to model computation?

Finite State Machine
FSM ::= <Alphabet, States, InitialState, HaltingStates, TransitionRules>
Alphabet ::= { Symbol* }
A set of symbols for the input.
States ::= { StateName* }
InitialState ::= StateName
Must be one of the states in States.
HaltingStates ::= { StateName* }
Must all be states in States.
TransitionRules ::= { TransitionRule* }
TransitionRule ::= < StateName, Symbol, StateName>
StateName X SymbolStateName

Draw a finite state machine that accepts input strings containing one ( followed by one ):

Draw a state machine that accepts input strings where the parentheses are balanced: (Hint: you may need infinite amounts of paper.)