Getting Started with the AP

Introduction to the Micron Development Tools

Kevin Angstadt

University of Virginia


This tutorial provides an introduction to the development tools provided by Micron Technology for the Automata Processor (AP). This is not meant to be a comprehensive overview of the tools. Rather, this should provide inquiring minds with a solid foundation for further inquiry and exploration.

The following topics will be covered in this tutorial:

Note: This tutorial assumes the use of Linux; however, the SDK also supports Windows operating systems.

 Sample Code

Acquire and Install the Tools

The AP SDK is currently available by request at

  1. Verify that your system will support the SDK. Requirements are given here.

  2. Request the tools from

  3. Once your request has been approved, download and install the SDK. Note that on Linux, there are several packages that must be installed to have the full set of SDK tools.

  4. Register the SDK using the provided key using sudo apsdk_activate.

Programming the AP

The Automata Processor executes non-deterministic finite automata (NFAs) directly in hardware using a DRAM array and a reconfigurable routing matrix. Consequently, programming the AP consists of specifying one or more NFAs to be executed.

There are three primary programming languages and associated programming models for the AP:

  1. Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE)
  2. Automata Network Markup Language (ANML)
  3. RAPID
This tutorial will provide a brief introduction to programming using PCRE and ANML.

Compiling Regular Expressions

Another way to think about the AP is as a regular expression accelerator. Input is streamed to the AP, and the device checks the input against one or more regular expressions. Any matches are reported back to the host system.

The AP compiler provides direct support for compilation of PCRE. We will use update rules from Brill Tagging to understand the use of the compiler.

A single regular expression can be provided on the command line to the compiler.

apcompile -f single_regex.fsm "/ right/JJ to/[^\s]+ /"

Multiple regular expressions can be provided in a file to the compiler. Each regular expression is provided on a separate line. Below is the content of regex.txt.

/ right/JJ to/[^\s]+ /
/ the/[^\s]+ back/RB /
/ [^/]+/DT longer/[^\s]+ /
/ ,/[^\s]+ have/VB /
/ [^/]+/VBD by/[^\s]+ /
/ her/PRP\$ ,/[^\s]+ /
/ [^/]+/DT right/[^\s]+ /
/ [^/]+/IN 's/[^\s]+ /
/ [^/]+/RBS of/[^\s]+ /
/ had/[^\s]+ had/VBD /
apcompile -f multiple_regex.fsm regex.txt

The binary .fsm file generate by apcompile can be loaded onto the AP and executed using the runtime API. This falls outside the scope of the current tutorial.

Getting Started with the Workbench

The remainder of this tutorial will focus on ANML programming. ANML is a language based on XML for definite state machines. It is not recommended to program directly in ANML (at least initially!). For an introduction to ANML programming, this tutorial will begin by using APWorkbench, a graphical tool for laying out automata designs.

ANML: Basic Elements



Boolean Logic

Example 1: Finding Do(ugh)nut

  1. Open APWorkbench and create a new project donut

  2. Drag out a total of eight (8) STEs from the palette on the right side of the window

    For the starting STE (Dd), choose Start: All Input

    For the final STE (t), chick Reporting

  3. For each STE, set the symbol in the Element Properties pane on the right side of the window

  4. Hover the mouse over an STE to create an edge.

  5. Drag from the outgoing arrow to another state to create an edge


  1. Create input.txt in the project directory

    A doughnut or donut is a type of fried dough confectionery or dessert food. The doughnut is popular in many countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, supermarkets, food stalls, and franchised specialty outlets. Doughnuts are usually deep-fried from a flour dough, and typically either ring-shaped or without a hole, and often filled. Other types of batters can also be used, and various toppings and flavorings are used for different types, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing. In addition to flour, doughnuts may also include such ingredients as water, leavening, eggs, milk, sugar, oil/shortening, natural flavors and/or artificial flavors.

    This text was adapted from Wikipedia

  2. Choose Simulation > Start Simulation from the menu bar

  3. Choose input.txt as the symbol file

  4. Use the playback controls to step through the simulation

    • Inactive states are grey

    • Matching states are green

    • Non-matching states are red

    • Reports show up as a number below symbols in the input stream

    • Double-click on a number above a symbol in the stream to jump to that symbol cycle

Example 2: Counting Do(ugh)nuts

Exporting ANML

As a first step, we are going to export ANML from example 1. This is a fairly common task for an AP developer (allowing for the design to be compiled).

  1. With the donut project open, choose File > Export Project

  2. Save the file as donut.anml

Working with Counters

  1. Close the old project (small X next to palette)

  2. Create a new project named donut2

    • Check the box for Initialize Project with ANML File

    • Choose donunt.anml from within the donut project directory

    This imports the design from the previous project

  3. Disable reporting on the (t) state

  4. Drag out a new counter from the palette

    • Set the counter target to 5 in the element properties pane

    • Enable reporting on the counter

  5. Connect the (t) state to the (c) port on the counter

  6. Create the same input.txt as above and simulate

  7. The simulation will report on symbol 577 (indicating that we have seen five do[ugh]nuts)

Optimizing the Design

While reporting immediately when a pattern is matched may seem convenient, there can be implications when multiple patterns are being searched in parallel. Low cycles per report (CPR) will cause the processor to stall while reports are copied off of the AP.

It is therefore beneficial to stage reports and cause multiple patterns to report on the same clock cycle. Below is an optimization to the counting do(ugh)nuts example to demonstrate this.

  1. Disable reporting on the counter

  2. Change the counter mode to latch

  3. Add an STE that matches on '\xFF' and reports

  4. Connect the counter's output to the new STE

  5. Add an \xFF character to the end of input.txt

What is going on here? The counter will continuously output a signal after counting five do(ugh)nuts. Whenever we want to check the count, we inject an \xFF character. In this case, we do it at the end of the input stream. This allows us to control when output occurs.

Example 3: Boolean Operations

Let's see how boolean logic can help in our designs. We only wish to see a report if there are five do(ugh)nuts and an even number of characters in the input stream.

  1. Create a new project donut3 and import ANML from donut2

  2. Disable reporting on the STE after the counter

  3. Add two '*' STEs

    • One should be set to start on "Start of Data"

  4. Connect these STEs in both directions

  5. Drag an AND gate from the palette

  6. Connect the non-starting '*' STE and the '\xFF' STE to the AND gate

  7. Set the AND gate to report

  8. Simulate this against input.txt from donut2

Example 4: Macros

Macros allow for the reuse of a design. They can be thought of as rubber stamps that save the developer time and abstract away design details.

In this example, we will create a Hamming distance macro by hand.

  1. Create a new project named macro_example

  2. Choose File > New Macro

  3. Name the macro Hamming

  4. Create the following design:

    • The small boxes are ports, which we will use to connect macros

    • The symbols on the STEs allow us to set parameters (fill in the actual values later)

  5. Select 'Hamming Parameters'

  6. In the element properties pane, add the following parameters:

  7. Back in the main project tab, create the following design:

  8. In the element properties pane, set the following parameters for the Hamming macro:

  9. Simulate using the following text:


    Double-click on the macro to view simulation inside the macro

Validating and Optimizing

Some designs will not run efficiently on the AP. Often, this will occur when there are chains of boolean elements. Consider the example in the verify project.

The chaining of the boolean elements will result in the clock cycle of the AP being reduced to accommodate signal propagation. Here is an alternate design that will not have this problem:

By placing the additional STEs between the logic, we can run the AP at full clock speed. The only drawback is that the report will come one cycle after we expect, but this is easy to account for in post-processing!

Programmatically Generating Automata

Programming with the Workbench can quickly become tedious as designs grow in size. The SDK also provides programming language bindings to help generate automata. We will use Python bindings in this tutorial.

Example 1: PCRE to ANML

import argparse, os
from micronap.sdk import *

def main():
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
    parser.add_argument("pcre_file", help="the pcre file")
    parser.add_argument("outfile", help="the anml file")
    args = parser.parse_args()
    # strip the name
    name = os.path.splitext(os.path.split(args.outfile)[1])[0]
    # make the ANML workspace
    A = Anml()
    AN = A.CreateAutomataNetwork(anmlId=name)
    # open the regex file
    f = open(args.pcre_file, 'r')
    regex = f.readlines()
    #use this to keep track of the pcre rule
    i = 0
    for r in regex:
        i += 1
        id = "_" + str(i)
        # get rid of whitespace
        r = r.strip()
        except ApError as e:
            print "error:", e, r

if __name__ == '__main__':

Example 2: Generating Hamming Distance Macro

from micronap.sdk import *

def main():
    A = Anml()
    M = A.CreateMacroDef(anmlId='hamming')
    # the number of mismatches
    d = 3
    # length of string to compare against
    string_length = 7
    ste_list = dict()
    #set up param ste lists
    positive_param = []
    negative_param = []
    for i in range(string_length):
    # generate automata structure
    for i in range(2*d+1):
        for j in range(i/2,string_length):
            ste_id = '_'+str(i)+'_'+str(j)
            # set default values
            # we will replace these when instantiating
            if i%2 == 0:
                pattern = 'a'
                pattern = '[^a]'
            # starting states 
            if j == 0:
                start = AnmlDefs.ALL_INPUT
                start = AnmlDefs.NO_START
            # if we reach the end, report
            if j == string_length-1:
                report = True
                report = False
            ste_list[ste_id] = M.AddSTE(pattern,anmlId=ste_id,startType=start,match=report)
            # connect sequences of matching characters
            if i%2 == 0 and j>i/2:
                old_id = '_'+str(i)+'_'+str(j-1)
                M.AddAnmlEdge(ste_list[old_id], ste_list[ste_id])
            # diagonal mismatch transitions
            if i>0 and j>(i-1)/2:
                old_id = '_'+str(i-1)+'_'+str(j-1)
                M.AddAnmlEdge(ste_list[old_id], ste_list[ste_id])
            # two mismatches in a row
            if i>1 and i%2 == 1:
                old_id = '_'+str(i-2)+'_'+str(j-1)
                M.AddAnmlEdge(ste_list[old_id], ste_list[ste_id])
            # add ste to parameter list
            if i%2 == 0:
    # set parameter information
    for i in range(string_length):

if __name__ == '__main__':

Example 3: Stamp out a Macro

from micronap.sdk import *

def main():
    # create workspace
    A = Anml()
    AN = A.CreateAutomataNetwork(anmlId='hamming_reads')
    # load the macro
    hamming = A.LoadAnmlMacro('hamming7_3.anml')
    # read in the DNA sequences
    f = open ('reads.txt', 'r')
    reads = f.readlines()
    for r in reads:
        r = r.strip()
        k = AN.AddMacroRef(hamming,anmlId=r)
        for i in range(len(r)):
            # get a handle to the parameter
            ref = hamming.GetMacroParamFromName('%'+str(i+1))
            # get a handle to sub the parameter
            sub = hamming.GetMacroParamSubstitutionHolder(ref)
            # set the value
            sub.ste.new_symbols = r[i]
            # write this out
            # do the same for negation
            # get a handle to the parameter
            ref = hamming.GetMacroParamFromName('%n'+str(i+1))
            # get a handle to sub the parameter
            sub = hamming.GetMacroParamSubstitutionHolder(ref)
            # set the value
            sub.ste.new_symbols = "[^" + r[i] + "]"
            # write this out
    # write out the file
if __name__ == '__main__':

Compiling ANML

The final step is to compile the generated ANML file into a format that can be run on the AP. This is very similar to compiling for PCRE. We use the additional -A flag to specify that ANML is being compiled and to provide a file name for the element map. This stores STE ID information for reconstruction of report events.

apcompile -Abrill.emap -f brill.fsm brill.anml

Compiling in verbose mode provides information about the final design statistics. This can be helpful for estimating space utilization on the AP. The important numbers are STE Utilization and Total Rectangular Blocks.

apcompile -v -Abrill.emap -f brill.fsm brill.anml

To speed things up, we can also turn on multi-threading in the compiler.

apcompile -v -MT -Abrill.emap -f brill.fsm brill.anml

Macros can also be pre-compiled. This allows for faster compilation of the final design.

apcompile -v -MT -A -f hamming7_3.fsm hamming7_3.anml

Simulation and Emulation

ANML files can be simulated using batchSim:

batchSim -v brill.anml brill_input.txt

Compiled designs can be emulated using apemulate:

apemulate -m brill.emap brill.fsm brill_input.txt


AP Portal. Accessed 2016-03-03.

AP Programmers Reference. Accessed 2016-03-03.

Brill: Trainable Part of Speech Tagger. Accessed 2016-03-03.

Doughnut. Accessed 2016-03-03.

Linux® SDK Activation. Accessed 2016-03-03.

I. Roy and S. Aluru. Finding Motifs in Biological Sequences Using the Micron Automata Processor. In Proceedings of the 28th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, pages 415–424, 2014.

Last modified: 2016-03-04