2.0 Command-line functions

2.1 Calls on objects
legion_exports_interface
{-l <LOID> | -c <context path>}
{-w <well-known class type> | -f <function signature>}+

Creates an interface from the list of <well-known class type> and <function signature> arguments specified in the argument list. Sends this interface to the object specified by <LOID> or <context path> in the form of a call to the object mandatory function named exportsInterface(). Prints to standard output the return value from the call:

1 

if the interface of the object contains the entire interface of functions specified by the user

0 

if any one or more of the functions are not exported by the object

-1 

(without contacting the specified object) if the user creates a malformed argument list

The <well-known class type> argument is a string in the set of well known strings. The set can be listed via the legion_wellknown_class tool (see legion_wellknown_class).

For this tool's purposes, ClassObject is a well-known class string. CommandLineClass and BootstrapMetaClass are not considered well-known classes because they do not have any special member functions, as shown in the examples below.

$ legion_exports_interface -c /class/LegionClass \
   -w ClassObject
1
$

$ legion_exports_interface -c /class/LegionClass \
    -w CommandLineObject
"CommandLineObject" is not a well known class. Exiting.
-1
$

$ legion_exports_interface -c /class/LegionClass \
   -w LegionClass -w ClassObject
1
$

$ legion_exports_interface -c /hosts/BootstrapHost \
   -w UnixHostClass
1
$

$ legion_exports_interface -c /hosts/BootstrapHost \
  -w ClassObject
0
$

$ legion_exports_interface -c /class/LegionClass \
   -f "     LegionLOID ping();"
1
$

$ legion_exports_interface -c /hosts/BootstrapHost \
   -f "     LegionLOID ping();" -w UnixHostClass
1
$
legion_get_interface 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <context path>}

Retrieves the interface of a Legion object, named by <class LOID> or <context path>, by calling that object's getInterface() member function. Prints the returned interface to stdout.

The example below returns the interface of the LegionClass (the metaclass for all Legion classes).

$ legion_get_interface -c class/LegionClass
Getting the interface of object:1.01.01..000001fc0b325...
Object Interface:
  void deactivate();
  RestoreStateReply restoreState();
  SaveStateReply saveState(SaveStateRequest);
  LegionLOID ping();
  LegionObjectInterface getInterface();
  int exportsInterface(LegionObjectInterface);
  int addAttribute(ObjectAttribute);
  int addAttributes(ObjectAttributeList);
  int replaceAttribute(ObjectAttribute, ObjectAttribute);
  int replaceAttribute_s(ObjectAttribute, ObjectAttribute);
  int replaceAttributes(ObjectAttributeList, 
	ObjectAttributeList);
  int replaceAttributes_s(ObjectAttributeSignatureList, 
	ObjectAttributeList);
  int removeAttribute(ObjectAttribute);
  int removeAttribute_s(ObjectAttributeSignature);
  int removeAttributes(ObjectAttributeList);
  int removeAttributes_s(ObjectAttributeSignatureList);
  LegionAttributeList retrieveAttributes(ObjectAttribute- 
	List);
  LegionAttributeSignatureList retrieveAttributes_s(Object- 
	AttributeSignatureList);
  LegionAttributeList retrieveAllAttributes();
$
legion_ping 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <context path>}

Calls the object-mandatory ping() member function on the object named in <object LOID>. If the command returns, the object exists in an active state and its LOID is displayed. If the command does not return, the object is not accessible by the tool.

$ legion_ping -c foo
Pinging:  1.01.66000000.14000000.000001fc0a72...
Returned: 1.01.66000000.14000000.000001fc0a72...
$
legion_list_attributes 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <context path>} [-L] [<attribute name>]

Lists an object's attributes from the command line. Optional parameters do the following:

-L Lists the LOID of each attribute

<attribute name> Specify the attribute to be listed (more than one attribute can be listed)

A very simple example of this command is below. An object's attributes can include architecture, operating system information, host or vault compatibility, encryption information, etc.

$ legion_list_attributes -c Foo
Foo:
  (ALL)
Total attributes retrieved 1
        favoritecolors('puce', 'apricot')
$
legion_list_invocations 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}

Prints a list of currently pending, started, and recently completed invocations for a given object. The output will include information about each invocation's status, timing, progress, and errors.

legion_object_info 
[-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>]

Prints information about a given object. The output (obtained from the object's class) will include the object's host, vault, owner, Object Address, status, etc.

legion_update_attributes 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <context path>}
[{-a | -d | -t} <attribute description>] [-u]

Adds, deletes, test, and updates attributes, named in <attribute description>, of an object named in <context path> or <object LOID> from the command line. The <attribute description> parameter takes the form name(val1 ... valn). The attribute description must not contain any spaces or begin with an uppercase letter.

Optional parameters do the following:

-a Add an attribute

-d Delete an attribute

-t Test an attribute

<attribute description> Specify an attribute to be updated

-u Update an object's attributes

The following example adds the attribute favoritecolors to object Foo, with the -a flag.

$ legion_update_attributes -c foo -a "favoritenames(bob, fred)"
IN make_attr_from_input - favoritenames(bob, fred)
** ADDED 1 attributes(s) to object
$

Similarly, you can remove attributes, with the -d flag. Note, however, that all parameters must be included in order to remove an attribute:

$ legion_update_attributes -c foo -d "favoritenames(bob)"
IN make_attr_from_input - favoritenames(bob)
** WARNING - DELETED 0 attributes(s) from object instead of 1 specified

$ legion_update_attributes -c foo -d "favoritenames(bob, fred)"
IN make_attr_from_input - favoritenames(bob, fred)
** DELETED 1 attributes(s) from object
$
2.2 Calls on class objects
legion_activate_object 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <context path>}

Activates the object named in <object LOID> or <context path> (i.e., instantiates that object as a process) if it is inert. If the object is already active, the command has no effect.

legion_create_object
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>}
<new object context path>
[-h <host name on which to place new object>]
[-v <vault on which to place new object>]
[-H <context path of preferred host class>]
[-V <context path of preferred vault class>]
[-Ch <context containing list of preferred hosts>]
[-Cv <context containing list of preferred vaults>]

Creates an instance of the class named in <class LOID> or <class context path>. No start-up parameters will be supplied for the class or new object.

If the -h flag isn't used, the host is selected by the class. Similarly, the class will choose a vault if the -v flag isn't used. Normally, this means that a random host is selected, but some classes may act differently. If the -Ch or -Cv flag is used, the class will randomly choose a host or vault from the hosts or vaults listed in the specified context. In both cases, the system will not return the LOID of the randomly chosen host. The legion_host_vault_list and legion_vault_host_list (legion_host_vault_list and legion_vault_host_list) commands will allow users to limit the placement of a given class's instances (i.e., any instances of class Foo can only be placed on hosts X, Y, and Z).

The following options are supported:

-h Specify a host for the new object

-v Specify a vault for the new object

-H Specify the preferred host class's context path

-V Specify the context path of the preferred vault

-Ch Specify a context which contains a list of the preferred hosts

-Cv Specify a context which contains a list of the preferred vaults

legion_create_object_r 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>} 
<context path> <host name> <host architecture> 
<$LEGION> <$LEGION_OPR> <$LEGION_OPA> 
<binary path> [<user id>]

Causes the specified class object to create a new object on the host named in <host name> using the rsh* (remote shell) mechanism. The object will be managed with rsh, if the class it is invoked on is an rshStartClass. If this utility is invoked on a normal class, normal object create mechanism will be used, and the object will not be managed by rsh. This command is generally used only by the legion_create_host and legion_create_vault scripts, not by users.

The additional arguments specify information for the rsh environment.

<host name> Specifies the host upon which the new object should be placed. Note that this should be a DNS name

<host architecture> Specifies the host's architecture

<$LEGION> Specifies the Legion environment variable on the rsh host

<$LEGION_OPR> Specifies LEGION_OPR for host

<$LEGION_OPA> Specifies the OPR address for the object, i.e, a unique directory in which the object will maintain its persistent representation on the remote host

<binary path> Binary executable path for the object on the remote host

The optional parameter does the following:

<user id> Specifies the appropriate user name on the rsh host

legion_deactivate_object 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <context path>}

Deactivates the object named in <object LOID> or <context path> (moves it to an inert state) if it is currently active. If the object is already inactive, the command has no effect.

legion_destroy_object 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <context path>}

Deletes the object named in <context path> or <object LOID>. More specifically, it removes the object's LOID but not its context name (if there is one). If the object is active, the command deactivates the object. In all cases, it deletes the OPR (object persistent representation) associated with the object.

This command will not remove any context name associated with the object: you must use the legion_rm command to remove the object's name(s) or you will get binding errors. (You can use legion_ls -A to check for multiple context names.)

legion_list_implementations 
[-v] {-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>}

Lists the implementation objects associated with the class named in <class LOID> or <class context path>. In its default setting the output will consist of each implementation object's LOID and architecture type.

The following option is supported:

-v Run the command in a verbose setting. The output will include byte size and a brief description of each object. Legion will use one extra method invocation per implementation object.

legion_list_instances 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <context path>}

Displays information about the instances of the class named by <context path> or <class LOID>. For every instance, the tool displays the class's LOID, current object address, status (active or inert), the host on which it resides, and the vault that holds its OPR. The example below shows that class BasicFileClass has two instances, and that both are currently running.

$ legion_list_instances -c /class/BasicFileClass
Class 1.01.66000000..000001fc0d63e97... knows about the following instances:
LOID: 1.01.66000000.01000000.000001fc0a00...
        Current oa   : [xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx : 2020]
        Current host : 1.01.07.30232908.000001fc0...
        Current vault: 1.01.03.2e232908.000001fc0...
        Status       : object-running
LOID: 1.01.66000000.02000000.000001fc0edd...
        Current oa   : [xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx : 1895]
        Current host : 1.01.07.31232908.000001fc0...
        Current vault: 1.01.03.2e232908.000001fc0...
        Status       : object-running
$
legion_set_host 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path} 
{-l <host LOID> | -c <host context path>}

Calls the set_host() class-mandatory member function on the class of the object named by in <object LOID> or <object context path>, causing that object to migrate to the host named in <host LOID> or <host context path>.

In the example below, object Foo's host is changed from BootstrapHost to newHost.

$ legion_set_host -c Foo -c /hosts/newHost
legion_set_vault 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path} 
{-l <vault LOID> | -c <vault context path>}

Moves the OPR of the object named in <object LOID> or <object context path> to the vault named in <vault LOID> or <vault context path>.

2.3 Calls on LegionClass
legion_add_class_mapping 
<metaclass LOID> <class LOID>

This command notifies LegionClass that the meta-class named by <metaclass LOID> is the class of the class named by <class LOID>. LegionClass updates its class map accordingly.

legion_combine_domains 
[-help] [-v] [-C <target domain context path>]
<OPR directory for target domain>

Joins a Legion domain to your current Legion domain, thus creating a larger multi-domain system. Before running this command, be sure to place copies of both the new (target) domain's binding file (found in the $LEGION_OPR/LegionClass.configure file) and its related metadata file in a directory in your local file system: these configuration files will be used to determine the binding for LegionClass objects in the target domain. These file's directory path should be included in the <OPR Directory for target domain> parameter when you run the command.

If other domains were previously combined with the current or target domains they will be connected to the new system as well.

Once the two domains have been joined, their objects can communicate with each other and with objects in any other domains in the multi-domain system. However, their context spaces will remain separate. Use the -C flag to avoid this: specify a name in your local domain's context space that can act as a root context for the target domain's context space. Note that if you use this option you must place a copy of the target domain's $LEGION_OPR/legion_context_env.sh configuration file in your local configuration directory (the directory named in the <OPR Directory for target domain> parameter). This file will be used to determined the target domain's root context's LOID.

The following options are supported:

-help Print information about using this command

-v Provide a verbose output as the command is running.

-C Links the target domain's context space with your current domain's context space.

The example below combines the current domain with net2's domain:

$ legion_combine_domains -v ~/OPR-net2
Current Legion domain root:
Type 302 binding:[ 1.35d82a07.01..000001f
  c0c0e21f57326b63336de9fc4d88d7bf5a314d9
  f1df1079abb0938b29b3643e6c9a8413ea6fd58
  4f82be29b0ba56cdd0d421a609a4ba9ecf995c8
  ddb20b16d6df : [128.143.63.51 : 19870 :
  903621581 ] ]
Combined list of Legion 2 domain roots:
Type 302 binding:[ 1.c8.01..000001fc0a533
  f08413082b08857f283c8a0aa34193ea7478b2c
  608163414ca5f13939bb0e5d48788b543d5fddd
  05e49735487150edf8256d78002bb04454da7ea
  e82697 :[128.143.63.52 : 16022 : 903624
  927 ] ]
Type 302 binding:[ 1.35d82a07.01..000001f
  c0c0e21f57326b63336de9fc4d88d7bf5a314d9
  f1df1079abb0938b29b3643e6c9a8413ea6fd58
  4f82be29b0ba56cdd0d421a609a4ba9ecf995c8
  ddb20b16d6df : [128.143.63.51 : 19870 :
  903621581 ] ]
Created 2 new domain interconnections.
$
legion_create_implementation 
<binary path name> <architecture> 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>} 
[-c <context path>] [-nc] [-help] 
[-v] [-a <attribute>]

Creates an implementation object based on the binary executable named in <binary path name>. Each class maintains a list of the implementation objects that are suitable for its instances. There are a set of implementation objects created when your system was initialized (use legion_ls -la /impl to see a list). Several different implementation objects might be maintained by a class to support the use of multiple platforms--a class might have implementation objects for different architectures, for different operating systems, with different memory requirements, etc.

The new implementation object is associated with the class object named in <class LOID> or <context path>, and is marked as usable for hosts of a specified type (linux, solaris, etc.). For example,

$ legion_create_implementation \
  Legion/bin/linux/my_obj linux -c my_class

creates a new implementation object for my_obj. The new object is automatically assigned the context path /impls/my_obj.linux.1 (if you ran the example a second time, the new object would be called /impls/my_obj.linux.2). You can use the -c <context path> flag to specify a different context path or the -nc flag to specify that no context path be assigned.

At the moment, possible <architecture> values are:

The following optional parameters are supported:

-c <context path> Specify a context path for the new object. Default is /impls/<binary_name>. <architecture>.<#>

-nc Specify that the new object have no context name.

-help Print a help message.

-v Run the command in verbose mode.

-a <attribute> Assign the new object an extra attribute.

legion_init_arch

Creates and registers implementation objects for commonly used classes in the current architecture. This command is run on new hosts to create its implementation objects in the proper place. Implementation objects for specific binary executables can be created with the legion_create_implementation utility (legion_create_implementation).

$ legion_init_arch
Initializing Legion implementations for "linux"

Creating an implementation (ContextObject) for ContextClass
Continue (y=yes, Y=yes to all, n=no, N=no to all, v=verbose,
 	V=verbose all)? Y
Creating an implementation (MetaClassObject) for LegionClass
Creating an implementation (ClassObject) for VanillaMetaClass
Creating an implementation (BindingAgent) for 
	BindingAgentClass
Creating an implementation (BasicFileObject) for 
	BasicFileClass
Creating an implementation (ttyObject) for ttyObjectClass
Creating an implementation (StatTreeObject) for StatTreeClass
$
legion_list_domains

List the domains currently connected to your current Legion domain. The output will list the binding for your current domain and any domains linked to your current domain. Please see legion_combine_domains for information about connecting Legion domains.

2.4 Calls on File and Context Objects
legion_activate_instances 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>}

Activates all instances of the class named in <class context path> or <class LOID>. Instances that are already active will be unaffected.

legion_cat 
<context path>

Prints the contents of the Legion file object named in <context path> to standard output. It is similar to the Unix cat command.

$ legion_cat newFileObject
This is a test, just a test, nothing more.
$
legion_context_add 
<object LOID> <context name>

Adds a new name <context name> for the object named in <object LOID> to the current context space.

legion_context_create 
<context path>

Creates a new context in Legion context space, and assigns it the name given in <context path>. This command is analogous to the Unix mkdir command. The new context will be placed in your current context. The output will contain the new context's location and its LOID.

legion_cp 
[-help] [-r] [-v] [-m] [-p] 
[-localsrc] [-localdest]
[-V <vault context path>] 
<source path> <destination path>

Copies the file object or tree named in <source path> (named as either a context path or a local path) to a new, duplicate, file object or tree named in <destination path> (named as either a context path or a local path). Use the recursive mode (-r) to export objects to local file space. Analogous to the Unix cp command.

The following optional parameters are supported:

-help Print this help message and exit.

-v Verbose mode. Prints information about which files and directories the command is currently working on.

-r Recursive mode. If the <source path> is a directory, all of its contents are copied recursively. Only files and contexts/directories are handled. If other objects are encountered, they are skipped and legion_cp prints a warning message. Note that recursive mode automatically detects cycles in context space and prevents the recursive copy from revisiting context nodes in the cycle. A warning message is printed in the event that cycles are detected.

-localsrc Local source mode. Use to indicate that the file or directory to be copied (<source path>) is in the local file system. By default the <source path> is assumed to be in Legion context space.

-localdest Local destination mode. This option indicates that the <destination path> is in the local file system. The path is assumed to be a Legion context path.

-V <vault context path> Specify a vault restriction for new objects created by this command. Supply the context path of the vault that should manage new objects created as legion_cp runs.

-m Match-class mode. This mode indicates that when files or contexts are created by this command, they should match the class of their source context or file. By default, new files and contexts are created using the default file and context classes for your current Legion environment. This mode can only be used when copying within Legion context space (i.e., when no -localsrc or -localdest options are specified).

-p Print out the size, transfer time, and transfer rate for each file copied.

legion_deactivate_instances 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>}

Deactivates all instances of the class named in <class context path> or <class LOID>. Instances that are already deactivated will be unaffected.

legion_destroy_instances 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>}

Destroys all instances of the class named in <class context path> or <class LOID>. If any instances are active, they are deactivated.

This command will remove the LOIDs of the specified class' instances in all contexts, not just the current context. However, it will not remove any context name associated with this object: you must use the legion_rm command to remove the object's name(s), or you will get binding errors. (You can use legion_ls -A to check for multiple context names.)

legion_direct_output 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object path>}
{-l <tty LOID> | -c <tty context path>}

Causes the object named in <object path> or <object LOID> to direct its output (standard out and standard error) to the Legion tty object named by <tty context path> or <tty LOID>. Note that this command can only be invoked on objects that have dynamic output redirection enabled. If the command is invoked on an object that does not have redirection enabled, neither the object nor the tty is affected and an error message is displayed.

legion_get_host 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}

This command looks up and returns the LOID of the host on which the object named in <object context path> or <object LOID> currently resides.

$ legion_get_host -c Foo
1.01.07.d49d1a40.000001fc0c04724...
$
legion_get_vault 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}

Returns the LOID of the vault which the object named in <object context path> or <object LOID> is currently using to store its OPR.

legion_import_tree 
[<unix directory path> [<legion context path>]]

Recursively copies a local directory tree in Unix space, named by <unix directory path>, into a Legion context, named by <legion context path>. The output will include the new context's LOID and location. Pathnames can be relative or absolute. Default values are the current working directory and the current working context.

legion_list_names 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}

Lists all of the given object's context names. This includes names assigned by other users.

legion_ln 
<context path> <new alias>

Assigns an additional name, given in <new alias>, to the object named in <context path>. Analogous to the Unix ln command. Path names can be relative or absolute.

An object can have multiple context names, assigned by one or more users. The same context name can be assigned to different objects or to the same object so long as the contexts names are in different contexts (just as the same file names can be used in different levels of a Unix directory).

legion_ls 
[-laLAdqvh] <context path>

Lists the contents of a named Legion context in ascii-alphabetical order. Note that the pathname can be relative or absolute. The command is analogous to the Unix ls command. The default setting lists the current context. You can include a context path in the <context path> parameter to list the contents of that context. For example:

$ legion_ls /hosts
BootstrapHost
my.host.DNS.name
$

You can get more specific information (object type, LOID, other context aliases, state) about objects with the flags, described below.

Optional parameters do the following:

-l List object type and information, if available. Objects of unknown type will be listed as object and faulty objects will be listed as not available.

-a List "hidden" objects in the context, i.e. those objects whose names begin with a "." character. Examples would be the "." (current) and ".." (parent) contexts.

-L List the LOID associated with each entry.

-A List all known context aliases for each listed object.

-d List contexts like other objects, rather than listing their contents.

-q When creating a long listing, do not activate inactive objects.

-v Run command in verbose mode.

-h Print a help message for this command.

You can get more information about the objects in the current or a selected object or about a particular object by including one or more flags and a context path name. The output below combines the -l, -a, and -A flags to get a list of all objects in the /hosts context, their type, and all of their context names.

$ legion_ls -laA /hosts
. 	(context)
        /hosts
..	(context)
        /class/..
        /hosts/..
        /vaults/..
        /home/..
BootstrapHost	(object)
        /hosts/BootstrapHost
        /hosts/host.DNS.name
host.DNS.name	(object)
        /hosts/BootstrapHost
        /hosts/host.DNS.name
$

According to this, there are four names listed in /hosts, two referring to contexts and two to objects. We can see from the alternative context names, though, that BootstrapHost and my.host.DNS.name refer to the same object.

legion_mv 
<context path> <new context path>

Assigns a new context name, given in <new context path> to the object named in <context path>. Pathnames can be relative or absolute. Analogous to the Unix mv command.

legion_pwd

Prints your current context path. Similar to the Unix pwd command.

legion_rm 
[-r] [-f] [-v] <context path list>

Removes the context path[s] named in <context path list> from Legion context space. Pathnames can be relative or absolute. Analogous to the Unix rm command.

If the context path listed is the last (i.e., only) name mapped to a given object, the object will be destroyed.

Optional parameters do the following:

-r Recursively remove one or more contexts and all of their contents.

-f Force faulty objects (those with bad bindings) to be removed.

-v Run this command in a verbose setting. This will indicate when objects are destroyed and when only names are being destroyed.

legion_set_context 
<context path>

Changes the current working context to the context named in <context path>. Note that the path name can be relative or absolute. Analogous to the Unix cd command.

legion_set_tty 
<tty context path>

This command will set an environment variable to indicate which tty object should be used by subsequent programs. By selecting a new current tty object, users can redirect the output to any window or file.

$ legion_set_tty /context_path/my-tty

Note that program output does not have to be directed to the same window in which the program is run. By setting a new current tty object, the output can be redirected to any window, or even a file. For example:

$ legion_create_object -c /class/ttyObjectClass my-tty
$ legion_set_tty /log-file

creates a tty object whose output is sent to a file. To view the tty output, use the legion_tty_watch command (below).

legion_tty 
<tty context path>

This command can be used to direct all output from a particular shell back to that shell--i.e., create and set a tty object for a shell--in one step, rather than running legion_create_object, legion_set_tty, and legion_tty_watch. If no tty object exists at the path named in <tty context path> it creates a new object, sets it as the target tty, and starts the legion_tty_watch process in the background of the shell in which the command was run. If a tty object already exists at the named context path, the command sets that tty object as the target.

legion_tty_off

Unsets (stops) the Legion tty object for the current shell so that Legion programs executed in that shell after legion_tty_off is run will not display their output to a Legion tty object. This command also shuts off the background legion_tty_watch process for the current shell. This command only works on tty objects that have been set with the legion_tty command. See legion_tty_watch for information on turning off other tty objects.

Note that this does not destroy the tty object. The object can be reused with legion_tty, legion_set_tty, or legion_tty_watch.

legion_tty_redirect 
<object context path>

Causes the Legion tty object currently set in the shell environment to stream directly into the file object named in <object context path>. If the file does not already exist the system creates it. Existing files are appended to, not truncated. A single tty object can be simultaneously directed into any number of files (as well as watched from any number of terminal windows).

legion_tty_unredirect 
<object context path>

Causes the Legion tty object currently set in the shell environment to stop streaming into the file object named in <object context path>. If the tty object is not currently directing output to the named file the command is ignored.

legion_tty_watch 
[-l <tty LOID> | -c <tty context path>] 

Causes output written to a Legion tty object to be printed to standard output. If no command line parameters are specified, the current tty object set for the shell session is selected. Otherwise, the tty object named in <tty LOID> or <tty context path> is selected. Note, the command will not self-terminate: to stop the program send it a SIGINT (i.e., using ^C or "kill -INT"). Any number of legion_tty_watch sessions may simultaneously watch the same Legion tty object.

2.5 Start-Up and Shutdown Functions
legion_create_class 
[-help] [-c <context path>] 
[-sc <scheduler context path>] 
[-sl <scheduler LOID>]

Creates a new instance of class VanillaMetaClass. The object will be placed in the current working context, unless specified with the -c flag. The following options are supported:

-help Print out this help message and exit.

-c <context path> Assigns the context name given in <context path> to the resulting class object.

-sc <scheduler context path> Specify the context path of the default scheduler object that the new class should use.

-sl <scheduler LOID> Specify the LOID of the default scheduler object that the new class should use.

legion_destroy_host 
[-help] [-v] 
{-l <host LOID> | -c <host context path>}

Destroy a given host object. All contexts objects on that host will be destroyed and all active objects will be deactivated. Legion will automatically search your context space and remove and dangling context names for the host object.

Optional parameters do the following:

-help Print a help message.

-v Run in verbose mode.

legion_destroy_vault 
{-l <vault LOID> | -c <vault context path>}

Destroy a given vault object. Legion will attempt to move all of the vault's current OPRs off of the vault object and then destroy the vault object. If any OPRs cannot be successfully moved the process will abort and an error message will be displayed.

legion_initialize

Populates the Legion system with basic classes and implementations. This command should be run after a Legion system is started for the first time (using legion_startup). On subsequent activations of the system, the state created by this utility will already exist, so this command should not be run again.

legion_make_setup_script 
[-help] [-o <script basename>]
[-OPR <OPR dir name>] 
[-L <$LEGION dir name>]

Generates a Legion setup script for your system. This script sets the environment variables for Legion users.

The following options are supported:

-help Print this help message and exit.

-o <script basename> Specify the basename for the resulting setup scripts (default is /home/xxxx/OPR/setup). This command will generate two setup scripts, one for /bin/sh derivative users and one for csh-derivative users. The scripts will be named <script basename>.sh and <script basename>.csh, respectively.

-OPR <OPR dir name> Specify the OPR directory name that will be set up when the resulting scripts are run. This directory will contain the user's local copy of Legion-Class.config (default is "Legion-OPR"). The user's local version of the directory will be placed in the user's $HOME.

-L <$LEGION dir name> Specify the value of $LEGION, which is the directory where the resulting scripts are run. The default is the current value of $LEGION.

legion_print_config

Prints the "well-known" binding for LegionClass in the current Legion configuration.

legion_setup_state 
[-i]

Creates OPRs for the basic Legion system objects. This script should be run when starting a Legion system for the first time. The following optional parameter is supported:

-i run the command in an interactive mode.

legion_shutdown 
[-local] [-f] [-i] [-h]

Shuts down a running Legion system, preserving the state of all objects for subsequent reactivation of the system. Optional parameters allow users to shut down individual hosts and to specify an interactive shutdown.

Optional parameters do the following:

-local Shut down only a local host or vault.

-f Force the termination of a system. This may leave processes running, however, and prevent a system restart.

-i Put the shutdown in an interactive mode, which provides prompts for user actions.

-h Return the command's complete syntax.

legion_shutdown_class 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <context path>}

Deactivates the class object named in <class LOID> or <context path> and all of its instances. This command operates recursively: if applied to a metaclass, for example, it would deactivate the metaclass, all of its class instances, all of their instances, etc.

legion_starthost 
[-L <$LEGION>] [-O <$LEGION_OPR>] 
[-A <$LEGION_ARCH>] [-B <path>]
[-N <context name>] [-U <user id>] 
[-C <host class>]
{<new host name>} 
[<compatible vault list>]

Creates a new host object on the specified <new host name>, using the legion_create_object_r command (automatically invoked on the host class) (legion_create_object_r). The <new host name> is the host's DNS name. The legion_starthost command selects the following default values for the new object:

<$LEGION_OPA> = $LEGION_OPR/Host-$HOST.OPA
<binary path> = $LEGION/bin/$LEGION_ARCH/UnixHostObject

This command uses remote shell (rsh or ssh) classes to start a new host object on a specified host. Please note that you must be able to run rsh/ssh on the target host from your current machine without having to enter a password. You can set up an .rhosts file for rsh or an authorized_keys file for ssh to accomplish this: see the rsh and ssh man pages for further information.

You can run Legion commands on a remote host using rsh or ssh, once you set the proper environrmental variables:

LEGION_RSH=<rsh | ssh>
LEGION_RCP=<rcp | scp>

Optional parameters do the following:

-L <$LEGION> Specify $LEGION for host (default is "/home/Legion")

-O <$LEGION_OPR> Specify $LEGION_OPR for host (default is current $LEGION_OPR)

-A <$LEGION_ARCH> Specify the architecture type for the host (default is current $LEGION_ARCH)

-B <path> Specifies the basename of the executable host program that will be started on the target host (default is "UnixHostObject").

-<context name> Specify the context name for the host object (default is /hosts/<host name>)

-U <user id> Specify the user id for host (default is current user id)

-C <host class> Specify the context path of the host class to use (default is /class/UnixHostClass)

legion_startup 
[-local]

Starts up basic Legion services. The following optional parameter is supported:

-local starts up only a local host or vault

legion_startvault 
[-L <$LEGION>] [-O <$LEGION_OPR>] 
[-A <$LEGION_ARCH>] [-N <context name>] 
[-U <user id>] 
{<host name>} [<compatible host list>]

Creates a new vault object on the specified <host name>, using the legion_create_object_r command (automatically invoked on the host class) (legion_create_object_r). The <host name> is the host's DNS name.

This command uses remote shell (rsh or ssh) classes to start a new vault object on a specified host. Please note that you must be able to run rsh/ssh on the target host from your current machine without having to enter a password. You can set up an .rhosts file for rsh or an authorized_keys file for ssh to accomplish this: see the rsh and ssh man pages for further information.

You can run Legion commands on a remote host using rsh or ssh, once you set the proper environrmental variables:

LEGION_RSH=<rsh | ssh>
LEGION_RCP=<rcp | scp>

The following optional parameters are supported:

-L <$LEGION> Specify $LEGION for the vaults host (default is "/home/Legion")

-O <$LEGION_OPR> Specify $LEGION_OPR for the vaults host (default is "/home/OPR")

-A <$LEGION_ARCH> Specify the architecture of the vaults host (default is current $LEGION_ARCH)

-N <context name> Specify the context name for the vault object (default is /vaults/vault-<host name>)

-U <user id> Specify the user id to use on the vaults host (default is current user id)

2.6 Scheduling support
legion_class_host_list 
[-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>]
[{-a | -d | -t} <host1> <host2> ... <hostn>] 
[-p] [-u]

Manipulates the list of hosts upon which the class named in <class context path> or <class LOID> can place its instances. The list of acceptable hosts for a given class consists only of hosts that have been added to the list. The list therefore may not necessarily include all possible hosts. If there are no hosts listed as acceptable the user can assume that all hosts are acceptable.

The following optional parameters are supported:

-c use context paths to specify class and host

-l use dotted hex LOIDs to specify class and host

-a add named host to the class's acceptable host list

-d delete named host from the class's acceptable host list

-t test whether or not a host is on the class's acceptable host list

-p display the class's acceptable host list

-u print usage

The example below adds a new host to the list of acceptable hosts of BasicFileClass, using the -a flag.

$ legion_class_host_list -c /class/BasicFileClass -a /hosts/newHost
** ADDED 1 host(s) to class's acceptable host set

The -p flag can then be used to check the listing.

$ legion_class_host_list -c /class/BasicFileClass -p
** ACCEPTIBLE HOST LISTING: 
**      1.01.07.d59d1a40.000001fc094e23...
$

You can use the -a, -d, and -t flags more than once when running the command but regardless of how you list them on the command line Legion will process them in a specific order when you run the command: first adding any new hosts, then deleting old hosts, then testing any hosts, and finally printing out the results. Note also that if you give the class's context name in the first parameter (i.e., with the -c flag) you must use the hosts' context names in the <host1> <host2> ... <hostn> parameter. Similarly, if you give the class's LOID (with the -l flag) you must use the hosts' LOIDs. In other words, if you were to enter:

$ legion_class_host_list -c /class/myClass -t 1.01.07.d59d...

You would get an error message. Legion will treat the host's LOID as a context name.

legion_class_vault_list 
[-l {<class LOID> | -c <class context path>}
[{-a | -d | -t} <vault1> <vault2> ... <vaultn>] 
[-p] [-u]

Manipulates the list of vaults upon which the class named in <class context path> or <class LOID> can place its instances' OPRs. Optional parameters are:

-c use context paths to specify class and vault

-l use LOIDs to specify class and vault

-a add named vault to the class's acceptable vault list

-d delete named vault from the class's acceptable vault list

-t test whether or not a vault is on the class's acceptable vault list

-p display the class's acceptable vault list

-u print usage

You can use the -a, -d, and -t flags more than once when running the command but regardless of how you list them on the command line Legion will process them in a specific order when you run the command: first adding any new vaults, then deleting old vaults, then testing any vaults, and finally printing out the results. Note also that if you give the class's context name in the first parameter (i.e., with the -c flag) you must use the vaults' context names in the <vault1> <vault2> ... <vaultn> parameter. Similarly, if you give the class's LOID (with the -l flag) you must use the vaults' LOIDs. If you were to enter:

$ legion_class_vault_list -c /class/myClass \
   -t 1.01.07.01000...

You would get an error message. Legion will treat the vault's LOID as a context name.

legion_config_scheduler 
{-l <scheduler LOID> | -c <scheduler context path>} 
[-get_enactor] [-get_collection] 
[-set_enactor {-l <Enactor LOID> | -c <Enactor path>}] 
[-set_collection {-l <Collection LOID> | -c <Collection path>}]

This command can be used to query or configure the helper objects used by a basic Legion scheduler. Basic Legion Scheduler objects use a Collection helper object to obtain information about available resources upon which they can schedule objects. After constructing a schedule, basic Legion Schedulers use an Enactor helper object to implement scheduling decisions (to actually start up the scheduled objects). Use this command to assign a particular Collection and Enactor to a basic Legion Scheduler or vice versa.

The following optional parameters are supported:

-get_enactor print the LOID of a basic Legion Scheduler's currently assigned Enactor helper object

-get_collection print the LOID of a basic Legion Scheduler's currently assigned Collection helper object

-set_enactor set the Enactor named in <Enactor LOID> or <Enactor path> to the Scheduler

-set_collection set the Collection named in <Collection LOID> or <Collection path> to the Scheduler

legion_get_candidate_hosts
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}

Display the LOIDs of acceptable hosts for the object named in <object context path> or <object LOID>.

legion_get_candidate_placements 
{-l <class LOID> <instance LOID>} | 
{-c <class context path> <instance context path>} 
[<max placements>]

Displays a list of acceptable host/vault pairings for the class and instance named in <class context path> <instance context path> or <class LOID> <instance LOID>. The optional parameter <max placements> limits the number of feasible placements displayed. The default value set for this parameter (-99) indicates that there's no upper limit in the number of placements that should be returned. If the user specifies a max number, it's passed on to the object via the method call, and only that number of placements will be returned.

The output of this command lists the LOIDs of the instance (abbreviated as inst), host, implementation object (abbreviated as impl obj), and vault of each pairing. The instance LOID appears in each listed pairing.

The example below displays the list of pairings for instance Foo of class BasicFileClass. In this case, there are two possible vaults (BootstrapVault and NewVaultObject) but only one host (BootstrapHost): there are therefore two possible pairings, and two lists. The first pairing, of BootstrapHost and BootstrapVault, lists the LOID of Foo, BootstrapHost, BasicFileClass's implementation object, and Bootstrap-Vault. The next pairing, of BootstrapHost and NewVault-Object) repeats the LOIDs of Foo, BootstrapHost, and the implementation object, and ends with the NewObjectVault's LOID.

$ legion_get_candidate_placements -c /class/BasicFileClass Foo
max = -99
ALL_PLACEMENTS = -99
Candidate Placements for Foo:
        inst = 1.01.66000000.01000000.000001...
        host = 1.01.07.d49d1a40.000001fc0c04...
        impl obj = 1.01.08.d89d1a40.000...  arch = 1
        vault = 1.01.03.d49d1a40.000001fc0a6...
        inst = 1.01.66000000.01000000.000001...
        host = 1.01.07.d49d1a40.000001fc0c04...
        impl obj = 1.01.08.d89d1a40.000...  arch = 1
        vault = 1.01.03.d69d1a40.000001fc0ac...
$
legion_get_candidate_vaults
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}

Display the LOIDs of acceptable vaults for the object named in <object context> or <object LOID>.

$ legion_get_candidate_hosts -c /vaults/NewVaultObject

1.01.07.d49d1a40.000001fc0c0472...
1.01.07.d59d1a40.000001fc094e23...
1.01.07.d69d1a40.000001fc0b6810...
$
legion_host_vault_list 
{-l <host LOID> | -c <host context path>]
[{-a | -d | -t} <vault1> <vault2> ... <vaultn>] 
[-p] [-u]

Used to display and manipulate list of vaults with which the host named in <host context path> or <host LOID> can interoperate.

The following optional parameters are supported:

-c use context paths to specify host and vault

-l use dotted hex LOIDs to specify host and vault

-a add named vault to the host's acceptable vault list

-d delete named vault from the host's acceptable vault list

-t test whether or not a vault is on the host's acceptable vault list

-p display the host's acceptable vault list

-u print usage

To list the vaults that a host can operate on, for instance, you would type in:

$ legion_host_vault_list -c /hosts/HostName -p
** COMPATIBLE VAULT LISTING: 
**      1.01.03.d49d1a40.000001fc0a69cbb845...
$

You can use the -a, -d, and -t flags more than once when running the command but regardless of how you list them on the command line Legion will process them in a specific order when you run the command: first adding any new vaults, then deleting old vaults, then testing any vaults, and finally printing out the results. Note also that if you give the host's context name in the first parameter (i.e., with the -c flag) you must use the vaults' context names in the <vault1> <vault2> ... <vaultn> parameter. Similarly, if you include the host's LOID (via the -l flag) you must include the vault's LOIDs. That is to say, if you were to enter:

$ legion_host_vault_list -c /host/HostName -t 1.01.03.d49...

you would get an error message. Legion will treat the vault's LOID as a context name.

legion_instance_host_list
{-l <LOID> | -c <context path>}
[{-a | -d | -t} <host1> <host2> ... <hostn>] 
[-p] [-u]

Manipulates the list of hosts upon which the instance named in <LOID> or <context path> can be placed.

The following optional parameters are supported.

-l <LOID> use LOIDs to specify instance and host

-c <context path> use context paths to specify instance and host

-a add named host to the instance's acceptable host list

-d delete named host from the instance's acceptable host list

-t test whether or not a host is on the instance's acceptable host list

-p display the instance's acceptable host list

-u print usage

You can use the -a, -d, and -t flags more than once when running the command but regardless of how you list them on the command line Legion will process them in a specific order when you run the command: first adding any new hosts, then deleting old hosts, then testing any hosts, and finally printing out the results. Note also that if you give the instance's context name in the first parameter (i.e., with the -c flag) you must use the hosts' context names in the <host1> <host2> ... <hostn> parameter. Similarly, if you give the instance's LOID (with the -l flag) you must use the hosts' LOIDs. In other words, if you were to enter:

$ legion_instance_host_list -c myInstance -t 1.01.07.01000...

You would get an error message. Legion will treat the host's LOID as a context name.

legion_join_collection 
{-l <Collection LOID> | -c <Collection path>}
{-l <member LOID> | -c <member path>}

This command joins the objects named in <member LOID> or <member path> to the Collection named in <Collection LOID> or <Collection path>. Any Legion object can be added to a Collection.

Use the legion_query_collection command to get information (in the form of object attributes) about the given collection.

legion_leave_collection 
{-l <Collection LOID> | -c <Collection path>}
{-l <member LOID> | -c <member path>}

This command removes the object named in <member LOID> or <member path> from the Collection named in <Collection LOID> or <Collection path>.

legion_list_oprs 
{-l <vault LOID> | -c <vault context path>}

Lists all OPRs currently stored in a given vault. The output includes information about inert objects' LOIDs, OPA, owner, and status.

legion_query_collection 
[-v] 
{-l <Collection LOID> | -c <Collection path>} 
<query>

This command searches for information of the Collection object named in <Collection LOID> or <Collection path>. The format of the <query> string is described in the paper "Constructing Distributed Schedulers Using the MESSIAHS Interface Language," by Steve J. Chapin and Eugene H. Spafford.

Examples of query strings are:

'true' This query would return the list of all objects contained in the Collection.

'match($host_os_name,"SunOS")'
This query would return the list of all objects contained in the Collection with an attribute of the form (host_os_name,"SunOS").

'match($host_os_name,"SunOS")' or

'match($host_os_name,"Linux")'
This collection would return the list of all objects contained in the Collection with an attribute of either (host_os_name,"SunOS") or (host_os_name,"Linux").

The following option is available:

-v Run in verbose mode. The resulting list of objects matching the query will be displayed along with the attributes of each object. Otherwise, only the list of matching objects (without their attributes) will be displayed.

The example below uses the default Collection (found in the /etc context), would be:

$ legion_query_collection -c /etc/Collection true
2 hits:
1.36ab9e4a.03.01000000.000001fc099204...
1.36ab9e4a.07.01000000.000001fc0d6e07...
$

The output shows that there are two objects in the Collection, the bootstrap host and the bootstrap vault.

legion_set_default_placement 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context name>}
{-l <host LOID> | -c <host context name>}
{-l <vault LOID> | -c <vault context name>}

Sets the default placement for objects of the class named in <class LOID> or <class context name> to the given host/vault pair. Default placement is used when a class has no associated Scheduler object or cannot contact its associated Scheduler object. When a default placement is set the user should take care to ensure that an implementation for the default placement host's architecture is available.

legion_set_scheduler 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>}
{-l <Scheduler LOID> | -c <Scheduler context path>}

This commands sets the Scheduler named in <Scheduler LOID> or <Scheduler context path> for the class named in <class LOID> or <class context path>. This will be the default scheduler for that class. The class will then use the scheduler to determine which hosts and vaults should manage its instances (i.e., determine placements for the class's instances).

legion_set_scheduler_policy 
{-l <class LOID> | -c <class context path>} 
<policy>

This command can be used to set a class object's policy for using its default scheduler. See also legion_set_scheduler.

The legal values for <policy> are:

0 This policy value specifies that the class named in <class LOID> or <class context path> should use its default scheduler if the scheduler is currently active. It is intended to protect bootstrap classes, which may be involved in activating Schedulers and Scheduler helper objects. Typically, this policy is not recommended for use class objects.

Classes using this policy should have a default placement available. See legion_set_default_placement.

1 This policy value specifies that the class should always use its default Scheduler, even if the Scheduler is not active. This is recommended for user classes, which typically require help from a Scheduler object when making placement decisions.

legion_vault_host_list
{-l <vault LOID> | -c <vault context path>}
[{-a | -d | -t} <host1> <host2> ... <hostn>] 
[-p] [-u]

Display and manipulates the list of hosts with which the vault named in <vault LOID> or <vault context path> can interoperate.

The following optional parameters are supported:

-c use context paths to specify vault and host

-l use LOIDs to specify vault and host

-a add named host to the vault's acceptable host list

-d delete named host from the vault's acceptable host list

-t test whether or not a host is on the vault's acceptable host list

-p display the vault's acceptable host list

-u print usage

To view the list of hosts that a given vault can operate on, you could use something like the example below.

$ legion_vault_host_list -c /vaults/VaultName -p
** COMPATIBLE HOST LISTING: 
**      1.01.07.d49d1a40.000001fc0c04724...
**      1.01.07.d59d1a40.000001fc094e23c...
**      1.01.07.d69d1a40.000001fc0b68108...
$

You can use the -a, -d, and -t flags more than once when running the command but regardless of how you list them on the command line Legion will process them in a specific order when you run the command: first adding any new hosts, then deleting old hosts, then testing any hosts, and finally printing out the results. Note also that if you give the vault's context name in the first parameter (i.e., with the -c flag) you must use the hosts' context names in the <host1> <host2> ... <hostn> parameter. Similarly, if you give the vault's LOID (with the -l flag) you must use the hosts' LOIDs. In other words, if you were to enter:

$ legion_vault_host_list -c /vaults/VaultName -t 1.01.07...

you would see an error message. Legion will treat the host's LOID as a context name.

2.7 General functions about the state of the system
legion_check_system 
[-help] [-v] [-q]

Checks the status of the key elements of your Legion system: LegionClass, host objects, root context object, etc. The output will include a summary of warnings and errors currently running in your system.

The following options are supported:

-help Prints a help message.

-v Run the command in a verbose mode.

-q Run the command in a quiet mode, i.e., print only the summary of warnings and errors.

legion_classof 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <context path>}

Displays the LOID of the class of the object named in <context path> or <object LOID>.

$ legion_classof -c Foo
The class of 1.01.66000000.01000000.000001fc0...
is 1.01.66000000..000001fc0d085b2c33...
$
legion_create_stat_tree 
<base context path>

Creates a database of current loads on all host objects in a system.

legion_host_stats 
{-l <host LOID> | -c <host context path>}

Prints the number of objects and current load for the given host object.

legion_list_objects 
{-l <host LOID> | -c <host context path>}

Lists the Legion objects currently managed by (i.e., running on) the host object named in <host context path> or <host LOID>. This may include each object's LOID, status, and its owner's LOID and OA.

legion_version

Prints which version of Legion you are current running. For example, the output below indicates that the current system is a University of Virginia Legion system version 1.3.5.

$ legion_version
VaL Legion version 1.3.5
$
legion_wellknown_class 
<wellknown class name>

Gets the class LOID of a Legion "well-known" class. Possible values for <wellknown class> are:

LegionClass
BootstrapMetaClass
UnixHostClass
UnixVaultClass
CommandLineClass
ContextClass
ImplementationClass
UnixImplementationCacheClass
BindingAgentClass

legion_whereis 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}

This command returns a specified object's host and vault object. That is, the output gives the context path of the host and vault objects where the object and the object's persistent state are located. If the host or vault objects have been assigned aliases Legion will randomly return one of the context paths. Your output will look something like this:

$ legion_whereis -c Foo
Host   : /hosts/BootstrapHost
Vault  : /vaults/BootstrapVault
$

This example looks up the location of object Foo. The output shows that the object is located on BootstrapHost and its persistent state is on BootstrapVault.

legion_whoami

You can use this command to find out which user id you are currently logged in as. Your output will look something like this:

$ legion_whoami
/users/nemo
$

This means that you are logged in as user nemo.

2.8 Security
legion_add_implicit_params 
[-l <AuthenticationObject LOID> | -c <AuthenticationObject context path>] {-s | <filename>}

Add an implicit parameter to the AuthenticationObject named in <AuthenticationObject LOID> or <AuthenticationObject context path> or, if no AuthenticationObject is named, the current environment. The arguments take the same input format as legion_set_implicit_params. New parameters merge into the existing implicit parameter set (i.e., new parameters override old ones of the same name).

The following option is supported:

-s Read from stdin

legion_change_owner 
[-h] [-v] [-r] 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}
{-l <target owner LOID> | -c <target owner context path>

Changes an object's owner. Note that you must be logged in as both the current owner and the target owner in order to run this command.

The following options are supported:

-h Print this help message.

-v Run this command in verbose mode.

-r Run this command in recursive mode. If the specified <object LOID> or <object context path> is a class, ownership of all instances, sub-instances, etc. will change. If the specified <object LOID> or <object context path> refers to a context object, change ownership of all context entries, recursively applying the operation to sub-contexts will change. In either case, ownership of the root object referred to by <object LOID> or <object context path> is changed.

legion_change_permissions 
[+-rwx] [-v] [-help] 
<group/user context path> 
<target context path>

Changes an object's read, write, and execute permissions so that you can allow the user or group named in <group/user context path> to use the object named in <target context path>. This tool manipulates an object's access control list (ACL) so that other users can call methods on your objects. For our purposes, "read" methods are defined as methods that obtain but do not modify an object's state, "write" methods are methods that modify an object's state, and "execute" methods are methods that run an object. The example below would allow bob to read object foo.

$ legion_change_permissions +r /users/bob foo

This command works on common Legion object types: context, file, class, tty, implementation, host, and vault objects all fall into this category.

The following optional parameters are supported:

-r Deny read permissions to the target object.

+r Grant read permissions to the target object.

-w Deny write permissions to the target object.

+w Grant write permissions to the target object.

-x Deny execute permissions to the target object (note that this option is for class objects only).

+x Grant execute permissions to the target object (note that this option is for class objects only).

-v Run the command in verbose mode. You will see a list of the ACLs that have changed.

-help Print a help message.

legion_create_user 
<user name>

This command is actually a simple wrapper around the legion_create_user_object command. The full command give more control to the creation of AuthenticationObjects.

The user id is the context name of an AuthenticationObject: the legion_create_object utility creates the object and assigns it the context name given in <user name>. The command will prompt for a password for the new user, and will return the new object's LOID. Note that the context in which the user name is placed has nothing to do with that user's privileges in that context. Once a user is created, the legion_login command is used to log in.

legion_get_acl 
{-l <LOID> | -c <context>}

Get the access control list of specified object

legion_get_implicit_params 
[-l <LOID> | -c <context>]

Get the implicit parameters of a specified object or the current environment. When used without an argument, the command will return the implicit parameters of the current environment: when an object is named in either <object LOID> or <object contexts path> the object's implicit parameters will be returned.

legion_init_security

Creates the initial user (called by default /users/admin) in a new Legion system. This command should be run immediately after legion_initialize when you are starting your system. The script creates a new context called /users, a new user object called admin. The context name admin is placed in the new /users context. You will be asked to give a password. You can change the admin's password with the legion_passwd command.

After running legion_init_security you must login as admin in order to use the system. Use the legion_login command, with /users/admin as the <user name> parameter. This command only needs to be run once, when the system is first started. Only one /users/admin should exist in a system.

legion_login 
[-l <user LOID> | <user name>] [-e <command>]
legion_login 
-x [-e <command>]

Allows user to log in to the Legion system as a user, and sets up implicit parameters and security credentials for the user. Note that the command can be run without any arguments (although it will prompt for a user name if a user LOID or user name is not given). User names are context names for AuthenticationObjects (special objects that contain a user password, initial implicit parameters, and other information), created with the legion_create_user command. On a successful login, a new shell is created. Logout is achieved by exiting the shell.

The -e flag can be used to specify a different program to run with security credentials instead of a Unix shell. For example, the following will run legion_ping on object bob in bob's shell.

$ legion_login bob -e legion_ping -c bob

The -x flag can be used to start a subshell or (using the -e flag) to execute a command without the user's login privileges. This takes advantage of a side benefit of legion_login: command-line tools can use legion_login's special caching service to accelerate the execution of subsequent Legion commands. This service is available even if no credentials have been obtained from an authentication object. The following, for example, will run legion_ping on object bob.

$ legion_login -x -e legion_ping -c bob

If special privileges were required to ping bob, the command would fail.

The following options are supported:

-x Run a command in a user's shell without the user's login privileges (i.e., do not login to an AuthenticationObject). Legion will not prompt for a password.

-e Run the following argument as a command with a user's login privileges without creating a new shell.

legion_passwd 
{-l <user LOID> | <user name>}

Changes a user's password: the command will prompt for the new password.

legion_set_acl 
{-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>}
[-s | filename]

Sets the access control list of the Legion object named in <object context path> or <object LOID>. The following option is supported:

-s Read from standard input

legion_set_implicit_params 
[-l <object LOID> | -c <object context path>]
[-s | filename]

Set the implicit parameters of a specified AuthenticationObject or the current environment. When used without an argument, the command will set the implicit parameters of the current environment. The following option is supported:

-s Read from standard input

2.9 Application development
legion_bfs 
<file> [-o <out file>] [-BackEnd]

Parses Fortran programs containing Legion Basic Fortran Support (BFS) pseudo-comments to produce standard Fortran output, or parses Legion BFS IDL files to produce Mentat Programming Language (MPL) output. If the input <file> ends with .f, it is treated as Fortran with pseudo-comments. If the input <file> ends with .bfs, it is treated as BFS IDL.

The following options are used:

-o <out file> Name of the file containing the resulting Fortran or MPL output

-BackEnd Instructs the legion_bfs compiler to produce output for IDL files included in the Fortran input file (ignored when the input is a BFS IDL file)

legion_generate_idl 
[<flags>] <input file local path>

This command generates Legion stub files for CORBA input IDL files. Optional flags allow you to include information about the preprocessor and the back end and to specify whether or not trans code, client stubs, and head files should be created. If you run the command with no flags, Legion will generate client-side and server-side stubs. For example:

$ legion_generate_idl your_file_in.idl

On the other hand, the example below will generate client-side stubs, a trans file, and header files.

$ legion_generate_idl -trans -client_stubs -header \ 
  your_file_in.idl

The following options are supported:

-help Print a help message and exit.

-A... Provide an implementation-specific escape.

-D<name> Define a name for the preprocessor.

-E Run the input file on the preprocessor only, print results to stdout.

-Idir <directory name> Specify a directory to included in the search path for the preprocessor.

-U<name> Undefine a name for the preprocessor.

-v Run the command in a verbose setting. This will show the compilation stages.

-w Suppress any IDL compiler warnings.

-trans Generate trans code.

-client_stubs Generate client-side stubs only (i.e., not server-side stubs).

-header Generate header files.

legion_make 
[-help] [-v] 
[-a <architecture>] 
[-h <host context path>]
[-e <make command>] 
[-OUT <remote file>] 
[<arg1> <arg2> ... <argn>]

Compiles programs on a remote host. The command tars your current directory, copies it to a remote host, untars it, and executes a make command. The resulting compiled binaries can be registered with Legion via the directory's makefile or can be copied back to your current directory with one or more -OUT options. Be aware that legion_make will tar everything in and below your current directory, so be sure that you are in the correct directory before running it.

If no remote host or architecture is specified (with the -h or -a flags) the command will run on a random host. For example, the following command would build the tar file on a random Alpha Linux host:

$ legion_make -a alpha_linux

To be more specific, use the -h flag:

$ legion_make -h /hosts/HostFoo

The following options are supported:

-help Print a help message.

-v Run in verbose mode (up to four of these flags may be used).

-a <architecture> Specify what kind of platform should be used to execute the command.

-h <host context path> Specify which host should execute the program.

-e <make command> Specify an executable command (other than make) to be run on the remote host

-OUT <result file> Specifies the local path name of a file that should be copied out of the remote program's current working directory after the program terminates. The default setting does not copy anything back to your current directory.

<arg1> <arg2> ... <argn> Optional arguments passed to the make commands: they can specify make targets or other build parameters.

legion_make_idl 
[-notrans] [-noclient] 
[-v] [-noreg]
[-s <suffix string>] 
[-run] [-help] 
<application name>

This command compiles Legion stubs and implementation code of CORBA client and server classes. The resulting binary executable files can be run in Legion systems. You can use the -run option to compile and execute your code in one step. Unless specified, Legion will compile client-side and class code and will register the resulting binary executable files with Legion (with the legion_mplc_reg_implimpl command).

The following options are supported:

-notrans Make client-side code only.

-noclient Make class code only.

-v Run command in verbose mode.

-noreg Specify that the resulting binary executable should not be registered with Legion.

-s <suffix string> Attach a suffix to the client and/or class names (i.e., a date, run number, etc.).

-run Run the application in Legion. Note that this will override the -noreg option.

-help Print a help message and exit.

legion_make_multi 
[-help] [-v] 
[-a <architecture>]
[-e <make command>]
[<arg1> <arg2> ... <argn>]

Compile a program on multiple platforms. Like the legion_make command, this tars the current directory, copies it to a remote host, untars it, and executes a make command on it. The resulting compiled binaries can be registered with Legion via the directory's makefile. Optional flags let you specify different architectures and make commands.

The following options are supported:

-help Print this help message and exit.

-v Verbose mode. Print actions as command executes.

-a <architecture> Specify an architecture on which to run make. This option can be specified multiple times to request concurrent builds on multiple platforms. If no architectures are specified, a remote make for the current architecture ($LEGION_ARCH) is performed.

-e <make command> Specify the make-command for the remote build (default is "make").

<arg1> <arg2> ... <argn> These optional arguments are passed to the remote "make" command. They can specify make targets or other build parameters.

legion_mplc

Compiles MPL (Mentat Programming Language) programs. There are several possible parameters to this command: please see the MPL Manual for more information (the MPL Manual is available from the Legion web site at http://legion.virginia.edu).

legion_mplc_reg_impl 
<class name> <binary path> 
<stateless | stateful | sequential> 
<arch>

Registers the given binary, named in <binary path>, as a stateful, stateless, or sequential Mentat object for the architecture named in <arch> and under the class object named in <class name>. This command is automatically run when you use the legion_mplc command (without the -nolegion option) to compile an MPL program.

In the example below, MentatObject is a stateful Mentat object in the local path /home/legion/bin on a linux or alpha_linux machine. To register it as belonging to a class with the context path name /ClassObject/MentatObject in linux or alpha_linux architectures, you would enter:

$ legion_mplc_reg_impl /ClassDirectory/MentatObject \ 
  /home/legion/bin/MentatObject stateful linux

or

$ legion_mplc_reg_impl /ClassDirectory/MentatObject \
  /home/legion/bin/Ment1atObject stateful alpha_linux
legion_java 
<java options> 

Executes java applications that use the Legion-Java interface. The command relies on the ability to call other Legion command-line tools, so it should be run only on machines that have Legion-supported platforms and have Legion installed and running. Note that you must include $LEGION/src/Java/client in your CLASSPATH environment variable in order for the command to run correctly.

The <java options> argument can include any command-line options accepted by the locally installed "java" interpreter. This set of options will always include the Java class to be executed.

legion_stateless_add_workers 
<class name>
<worker name1> <worker name2> ... <worker nameN>

Creates additional MPL stateless object workers. By default, when a stateless class is created or registered in context space it instantiates a single worker. That worker is used by all other objects wishing to call a remote method invocation on that class. Adding more workers allows message calls to be handled more efficiently.

The <class name> parameter should be the stateless class object's context name. The <worker name> parameters should be the desired context name of the new worker objects. Note that you can use full or relative path names.

legion_stateless_configure 
<stateless class context path> 
[-n <number of replicas>] 
[-Ch <host context path>]
[-w <max number work requests>] 
[-FlUsH]

This command configures stateless Legion classes so that requests sent to a stateless class are first routed to a proxy object, which selects a worker to service the requests. You can use flags to control the number of replica workers, their placement, and the number of work requests that a worker may service at a given time.

The current version of the proxy object uses a self-scheduling algorithm. When N work requests have been farmed out, the proxy will store any pending requests in an internal queue: when a worker is available, the proxy assigns it a request from the queue. N here is given by the following formula:

N = <number of replicas> * <max number of workers>

The following options are supported:

-n <number of replicas> Specify the number of workers to be used. Default is 1.

-Ch <context containing list of hosts>

Name a host where the work requests should be executed.

-w <max number of work requests>

Specify the maximum number of work requests that each worker should service at a time. Default is 5.

-FlUsH Remove all work requests for this class. You must spell this flag as written with proper capitalization.

legion_stateless_remove_workers 
<class name>
<worker name1> <worker name2> ... <worker nameN>

Removes MPL stateless object workers. The <class name> parameter should be the stateless class object's context name. The <worker name> parameters should be the context name of the unwanted worker objects. Note that you can use full or relative path names.

2.10 Program support
legion_link 
[-CC <compiler>] [-Fortran] 
[-pvm] [-mpi] 
[-L<library path>] [-l<library>] 
[-v] [-o <output file>] 
[-bfs] [-help] 
<object file list>

This command, similar to the Unix ld command, links together a set of object files and libraries to produce an executable program. The legion_link command automatically binds the produced executables to the Legion libraries. It can be used with object files and libraries created from C, C++, or Fortran source code. If any Fortran object files are linked, the -Fortran flag must be included.

The following options are available with this command:

-CC <compiler> Select a C++ compiler to perform linkage. The default value is based on the default compiler used by the Legion system on your platform.

-Fortran This flag must be included if any Fortran object files are linked.

-pvm Link the produced executable to the Legion PVM compatibility library.

-mpi Link the produced executable to the Legion MPI compatibility library.

-l<library path> Include the <library path> in the set of directories searched for libraries

-l<library> Link against the specified library.

-v Provide a verbose output as the command is running

-o < output path> Specify the local path of the resulting program. The default is a.out.

-bfs Link the produced executable to the Legion Basic Fortran Support (BFS) library.

-help Display the command's full syntax and options.

legion_mpi_debug 
[-q] {-c <instance context path>}

A utility program that allows the user to examine the state of MPI objects and print out their message queues. This is a handy way to debug a deadlock. There are a few limitations: if an MPI object doesn't respond, the command will hang and not go on to query additional objects. An MPI object can only respond when it enters the MPI library; if it is in an endless computational loop, it will never reply.

The following option is available with this command:

-q List the contents of the queues.

legion_mpi_register 
<class name> 
<binary local path name> 
<platform type>

MPI implementation generally require that MPI executables reside in a given place on a disk. Legion's implementation objects have a similar requirement. This command registers the executables of different architectures for use with Legion's MPI. It creates MPI-specific contexts, a class object, and an implementation for the program, and registers the name in Legion context space.

The command can be executed several times, if you have compiled your program on several architecture.

legion_mpi_run 
{-f <options file> [<flags>]} | 
{-n <number of hosts> [<flags>] <command> [<arguments>]}

Starts an MPI program. Note that the <command> argument is the Legion context name for the class created by legion_mpi_run. Parameters used for this command are:

-f <options file> Allows users to run multiple MPI binaries with a common MPI_COMM_WORLD

-n <number of processes> Specify the number of hosts on which the program will run

supported <flags> are:

-h <host context path> Specify the set of hosts on which the program will run (default is the system's default placement)

-Ø <host context name> Runs the first process (i.e., process zero) on this node

-p <PID context> Specify a context name for PIDs (default is /mpi/instances/program_name)

-S Print statistics at exit

-v Verbose option (up to four of these can be specified for increased detail)

-d <Unix path name> Specify that all children change to the specified directory before they begin to run.

Note that if the -f flag is used, the -n flag, program name, and any arguments will be ignored. Any <flags> used with -f will be treated as defaults and applied to all processes executed by this command, unless otherwise specified in the options file. The legion_mpi_run utility will expect one binary per line in the options file, each line including any necessary arguments as they would appear on the command line. Each line can also contain any of the legion_mpi_run flags except the -f flag.

If the -f flag is not used, the MPI application named in the legion_mpi_run command will then be started with the given flags.

An example, here running MPI program vdelay on two hosts, would be:

 $ legion_mpi_run -n 2 /mpi/programs/vdelay

You can examine the running objects of your application with

$ legion_ls /mpi/instances/program_name

This context will have an entry for each object in your application.

legion_pvm_register 
<class path name> 
<binary local path name> 
<platform type>

Registers a PVM task implementation. This setup is not necessary for tasks that will only be started from the command line (tasks that will not be "spawned"). Given the class named in <class path name>, the binary named in <binary local path register>, and the architecture type (currently Linux, Solaris, or SGI), this command creates an implementation object that can then be used by the Legion PVM Library.

Once you've registered an application, you can run it. If necessary, you can examine Legion context space with either

$ legion_ls /pvm

to list the Tids of running PVM tasks, or

$ legion_ls /pvm/tasks

to list the registered task classes.

You can also use Legion class utilities to examine the class state (e.g., legion_list_instances).

To register a Linux binary named matmult in Legion, enter:

$ legion_pvm_register /pvm/tasks/matmult matmult linux
legion_register_program 
<program class> 
<executable path> 
<legion arch>

This command allows uses to register a non-Legion executable program (specified by the <executable path> argument) and make the program available for use within the Legion system. The registered program will be associated with a Legion class object, named in <program class>: the class and the context path will be created, if the class was not already created by a previous execution of legion_register_program. The registered program will execute only on hosts of the architecture specified in <legion arch>.

Programs registered through legion_register_program can be executed with the legion_run command. See also legion_register_runnable for information about registering Legion programs.

The following parameters are used with this command:

<program class> The Legion context path name of the class with which the registered program should be associated

<executable path> The local file path of the executable program to register. This can be any program that could be run from the shell command prompt, including scripts, and binary executable generated by any programming language.

<legion arch> The platform type on which the program should be executed.

For more information on this command please see Registering non-Legion-compatible programs in the Basic User Manual.

legion_register_runnable 
<program class> 
<executable path> 
<legion arch>

The legion_register_runnable command is similar to the legion_register_program command in that it allows programs to be registered for execution through the legion_run utility. However, whereas the legion_register_program tool is used to register non-Legion programs, legion_register_runnable is used to register programs that are linked against the Legion libraries and export the "runnable" object interface.

The following parameters are used with this command:

<program class> The Legion context space path of the class with which the registered program should be associated

<executable path> The local file path of the executable program to register. This program should be a valid Legion object implementation that has been linked with the Legion library, and that exports the Legion "runnable" interface.

<legion arch> The platform type on which the program should be executed.

For more information on this command please Registering Legion-compatible programs in the Basic User Manual.

legion_run 
[-help] [-w] [-v] 
[-a <architecture>]
[-in <context path name>] [-out <context path name>] 
[-IN <local file name>] [-OUT <local file name>] 
[-f <options file>] <program class> 
[-t <minutes>] [-n <nodes>] 
[<arg1> <arg2> ... <argn>]

The legion_run command executes a single instance of a program associated with the program class specified in the <program class> argument. The command will randomly select a host to execute the program (observing the restriction that only hosts with an acceptable architecture may be selected). Support for directing scheduling (e.g. selecting a given host for remote execution) will be added in future releases. Arbitrary command-line arguments may be specified for the remote program.

Note that any number of input and output files may be specified for a single execution of legion_run (i.e., the -in/-out and -IN/-OUT options can be repeated).

The following parameters are used with this command:

<program class> Specifies the program class of which an instance should be executed. This program class should have been previously created with legion_register_program or legion_register_runnable (above).

The following optional parameters are supported:

-help Displays the command's syntax and provides a brief description of how to use its options.

-w Specifies that the set tty object should be used. If no tty object has been set, the flag will be ignored.

-v Run command in verbose mode.

-a Allows users to specify what kind of architecture the program should be executed on.

-in <context path name> Context path of a Legion file object whose contents should be copied into the remote program's current working directory before execution begins.The local file will have the same name as the <context path name> basename.

-out <context path name> Context path of a Legion file object whose contents should be copied out of the remote program's current working directory after the program terminates. The local source file will have the same name as the <context path name> basename. Note that output files are copied out regardless of the cause of program termination. Partial results will be available if the program crashes. Output files that are not found in the program's current working directory are skipped.

-IN <local file name> Similar to the -in option, but operates on a file in the local execution environment of legion_run (i.e., the file named in <local file name>).

-OUT <local file name> Similar to the -out option, but operates on a file in the local execution environment of legion_run (i.e., the file named in <local file name>).

-f <options file> Allows users to specify options for running legion_run in a separate file rather than listing them on the command line. This is useful for programs that make extensive use of the -in/-out or -IN/-OUT options. The file can contain one or more of the following, delimited by spaces, tabs, or blank lines: -help, -w, -v, -a, -in, -out, -IN, -OUT, -f, -t, -n. The program class name and arbitrary command-line arguments may not be included in this file. No other information should be included.

-t <minutes> Specifies the amount of time (in minutes) needed to run the program. If this option is not used, the host will assign the job its default time block. This option is only meaningful if the host selected to run the remote program enforces time limits for jobs: otherwise this option is not required.

-n <nodes> If the remote program is a native parallel job (e.g., a program written to use the local vendor MPI implementation), use this option to specify the number of nodes that should be allocated to the job. This option is not meaningful if the host selected to run the remote program is a uniprocessor or does not support multi-node allocations.

<arg1> <arg2>... <argn> Allows users to provide arbitrary command-line arguments for the program.

For more information on this command please See Running a Legion application in the Basic User Manual.

legion_run_multi 
[-v] 
{-n <number of processors>}
[-s <schedule file name>] 
{-f <specification file name>} 
[<program class name>] 
[<arg1> <arg2> ... <argn>]

This command runs a previously registered serial program, named in <program class name>, with all of the different input files, using a simple specification file, named in <specification file name>, to describe the names of the expected input and output files.

You must have already registered the program name and created the specification file. The specification file might look something like this:

in in.dat in.dat.*
constant const.dat
out out.dat

Where in identifies the line as a description of the input files (so it is a keyword). in.dat is the file name that the serial program expects for its input file. The final string, in.dat.*, is a pattern that the command will use to match all the different input files in the current directory that will be individually fed to different runs of the serial program. The constant keyword names a single input file that is fed to each run.

out is a keyword indicating the output file specification, and out.dat is the name of the output file from the serial program. If in.dat.123 is an input file, the command will direct the output to out.dat.123.

In addition, you can use the console keyword to denote a set of files that will receive standard output from each serial run (i.e., you will end up with the same number of files as serial runs).

console console.dat

If you do not use the console keyword, standard output will be sent to your Legion tty object (if you have not yet created a tty object, see legion_set_tty).

For example, with the following specification file:

in input input.*
constant constant.dat
out output output.*
console console

If you begin with the following files:

input.1 input.2 constant.dat

then the following output files will be produced:

output.1 output.2 console.1 console.2

The following parameters are used with this command:

-n <number of processors> Specify the number of processors used to run the program

-f <specification file name> The Unix path name of the specification file

The following options are available with this command:

-s <schedule file name> Specify a Legion schedule for running the program. The schedule contains a list of Legion host context names, followed by an integer specifying how many jobs can be run at once on a host (e.g., /hosts/Foo 3 to run up to three jobs on host object Foo).

-v Provide a verbose output as the command is running

<arg1> <arg2> ... <argn> Allows users to provide arbitrary command-line arguments for the program.


* If preferred, ssh can be used in place of rsh.



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