Z. Lu, J. Hein, M. Humphrey, M. Stan, J. Lach and K. Skadron.
In Proc. of the 2002 International Conference on Compilers, Architectures, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems (CASES), Grenoble, France, Oct. 2002.
This paper describes a formal feedback-control algorithm for dynamic voltage/frequency scaling (DVS) in a portable multimedia system to save power while maintaining a desired playback rate. Our algorithm is similar in complexity to the previously-proposed change-point detection algorithm  but does a better job of maintaining stable throughput and is not dependent on the assumption of an exponential distribution of the frame decoding rate. For approximately the same energy savings as reported by , our controller is able to keep the average frame delay within 10% of the target more than 90% of the time, whereas the change-point detection algorithm kept the average frame delay with 10% of the target only 70% or less of the time executing the same workload.