University of Virginia, Department of Computer Science CS200: Computer Science, Spring 2004

Notes: Wednesday 3 March 2004

• Friday, 5 March: Problem Set 5 (note: you have 2 extra days for PS5 from the original course schedule)
• Before 15 March: Read the rest of GEB Part I (see Notes 5)
Insert Sort in Halves
```(define (sublist lst start end)
(if (= start 0)
(if (= end 0) null
(cons (car lst)
(sublist (cdr lst) start (- end 1))))
(sublist (cdr lst) (- start 1) (- end 1))))

(define (first-half lst)
(sublist lst 0  (floor (/ (+ 1 (length lst)) 2))))

(define (second-half lst)
(sublist lst (floor (/ (+ 1 (length lst)) 2)) (length lst)))

(define (insertelh cf el lst)
(if (null? lst)
(list el)
(let ((fh (first-half lst))
(sh (second-half lst)))
(if (cf el (car fh))
(append (cons el fh) sh)
(if (null? sh)
(append fh (list el))
(if (cf el (car sh))
(append (insertelh cf el fh) sh)
(append fh (insertelh cf el sh))))))))

(define (insertsorth cf lst)
(if (null? lst) null
(insertelh cf (car lst) (insertsorth cf (cdr lst)))))
```
Insert Sort using Trees
```(define (make-tree left el right) (list left el right))
(define (get-left tree) (first tree))
(define (get-element tree) (second tree))
(define (get-right tree) (third tree))

(define (insertel-tree cf el tree)
(if (null? tree)
(make-tree null el null)
(if (cf el (get-element tree))
(make-tree (insertel-tree cf el (get-left tree))
(get-element tree)
(get-right tree))
(make-tree (get-left tree)
(get-element tree)
(insertel-tree cf el (get-right tree))))))

(define (extract-elements tree)
(if (null? tree) null
(append (extract-elements (get-left tree))
(cons (get-element tree)
(extract-elements (get-right tree))))))

(define (insertsort-tree cf lst)
(define (insertsort-worker cf lst)
(if (null? lst) null
(insertel-tree cf
(car lst)
(insertsort-worker cf (cdr lst)))))
(extract-elements (insertsort-worker cf lst)))
```
Quick Sort
```(define (quicksort cf lst)
(if (null? lst) null
(append
(quicksort cf (filter (lambda (el) (cf el (car lst))) (cdr lst)))
(list (car lst))
(quicksort cf (filter (lambda (el) (not (cf el (car lst)))) (cdr lst))))))
```
Measuring Orders of Growth
Here is the code I used for measuring orders of growth. It uses some MzScheme extensions that are not part of standard Scheme to time how long evaluations take.
```(define (timesort sortproc len)
(let ((vals (rand-int-list len)))
(let-values ([(val utime ptime gctime) (time-apply sortproc (list < vals))])
utime)))

(define (find-ratios lst)
(if (< (length lst) 2) null
(let ((thisone (first lst))
(nextone (second lst)))
(cons (exact->inexact (/ (cdr nextone) (cdr thisone)))
(find-ratios (cdr lst))))))

(define (testgrowth sortproc)
(let ((sizes (list 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 16000 32000 64000 128000)))
(find-ratios
(map (lambda (len)
(let ((time (timesort sortproc len)))
(printf "n = ~a, time = ~a~n" len time)
(cons len time)))
sizes))))
```
History
Sir Tony Hoare developed the QuickSort algorithm in 1960. His first assignment at a job with a small computer manufacturer was to implement a sorting routing based on the best then-known algorithm (Shell Sort, which is a Θ(n2) algorithm that is a slight improvement on the InsertSort alrogithm we saw in class). He thought he could do better, and his boss bet him sixpence that he couldn't. Quicksort was the algorithm that resulted. Since it is Θ(n log n) it is clearly better than Shell Sort theoretically (that is, it is always eventually faster once n is large enough), and is also better than Shell Sort in practice for nearly all applications.

Hoare received the 1980 Turing Award (the highest award given in Computer Science, it is named for Alan Turing, one of the codebreakers who worked at Bletchley Park during WWII. We will learn about Turing's contributions to Computer Science after Spring Break) for contributions to the design of programming languages. His award speech, The Emperor's Old Clothes, presents principles from his experiences designing programming languages. One of his claims is,

I conclude that there are two ways of constructing a software design: One way is to make it so simple that there are obviously no deficiencies and the other way is to make it so complicated that there are no obvious deficiencies.