CS 3330: HCL2D part 7: PIPE Lab 2

This page is for a prior offering of CS 3330. It is not up-to-date.

In this lab you’ll pipeline rmmovq and mrmovq (and halt). If you work with others in lab (which is encouraged), start from a clean file so as not to accidentally share solutions to seqhw with your partner(s). We’ll post a reference sequential implement of these instructions before lab begins which you may use if you so desire.

We encourage you to work from a subset of SEQ that has just these instructions: seq_memory.hcl

These instructions use all five pipeline stages.

Implement forwarding to resolve hazards.

1 Approach

1.1 Add the registers

We can use the existing xF register, since predicting the PC is not needed for these instructions.

At the beginning of decode add register fD {}.

At the beginning of execute add register dE {}.

At the beginning of memory add register eM {}.

At the beginning of writeback add register mW {}.

1.2 Wire a signal through the registers

For each stage,

  1. replace read values with outputs from registers in the preceding register bank
  2. replace written values with inputs into the succeeding register bank
  3. make sure you handled fixed-functionality inputs and outputs correctly

Consider SEQ’s decode stage as it relates to these two instructions:

reg_srcA = [
    icode in {RMMOVQ} : rA;
    1 : REG_NONE;
reg_srcB = [
    icode in {RMMOVQ, MRMOVQ} : rB;
    1 : REG_NONE;
reg_dstM = [ 
    icode in {MRMOVQ} : rA;
    1: REG_NONE;

This stage

  1. Decode uses icode, rA, and rB from the previous stage. That means we’ll need to add those to the incoming register bank (fD) and replace decode’s use of them with the outputs from that bank (e.g., icode becomes D_icode).

  2. Decode creates three outputs (reg_srcA, reg_srcB, and reg_dstM) so we change them into inputs into the next pipeline register bank (which is dE, so reg_dstM becomes d_dstM instead, etc.)

  3. All three outputs are inputs into the fixed functionality. Did we really want to put them in the pipeline register?

Work though the same three steps for each of the other stages.

1.3 Forwarding

By this point you should have a more-or-less functioning simulator, but you need to add data forwarding. Instead of d_valA = reg_outputA we want to check for all possible pending writes in a big mux.

d_valA = [

First, we do not want to forward if the register is REG_NONE:

    reg_srcA == REG_NONE : 0;

Where could data come from? Given mrmovq is the only possible source, we might need to forward from

We’ll do the same thing for d_valB

1.4 Load-Use Hazard

Even with forwarding we have a data hazard:

problem 1 2 3 4 5 6
mrmovq (%rax), %rcx F D E   M (available) W  
mrmovq (%rcx), %rdx F D (needed) E M W

This means we’ll need to use the stall_ and bubble_ signals on our register banks to add a stall to the decode stage.

solution 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
mrmovq (%rax), %rcx F D E   M (available) W  
mrmovq (%rcx), %rdx F D (stall) D (needed) E M W

This means forwarding is not enough: we need to stall.

  1. Detecting the dependency that exercises this hazard.

    The load-use hazard condition is exercised when mrmovq is in Execute and its reg_dstM is the same as a srcX in Decode. We could further constrain ourselves to sources that are going to be used in execute, but we won’t for this lab or its following homework: if there is a Decode src that matches mrmovq’s Execute reg_dstM, we’ll call it a load-use hazard.

    I suggest creating a wire loadUse:1; and initializing it to be true if this hazard is exercised.

  2. Reacting to the hazard when it is exercised.

    We need to stall the decode phase by stalling the previous pipeline register banks and bubbling the one right after decode:

    stall_F = loadUse;
    stall_D = loadUse;
    bubble_E = loadUse;

    This pattern enables the solution listed above by ensuring every stage ends up with the right work:

    time F D E M W
    before mrmovq (%rcx), %rdx mrmovq (%rax), %rcx
    after mrmovq (%rcx), %rdx nop mrmovq (%rax), %rcx

2 Testing your code

The following assembly:

mrmovq 1, %rax
rmmovq %rax, 160(%rax)
mrmovq 158(%rax), %rdx

should stall once to take 9 cycles and result in

+----------------------- halted in state: ------------------------------+
| RAX:              10f   RCX:                0   RDX:          10f0000 |

| used memory:   _0 _1 _2 _3  _4 _5 _6 _7   _8 _9 _a _b  _c _d _e _f    |
|  0x0000000_:   50 0f 01 00  00 00 00 00   00 00 40 00  a0 00 00 00    |
|  0x0000001_:   00 00 00 00  50 20 9e 00   00 00 00 00  00 00          |
|  0x000001a_:                                                    0f    |
|  0x000001b_:   01 00 00 00  00 00 00                                  |
+--------------------- (end of halted state) ---------------------------+

The following assembly (y86/mrmr.yo):

mrmovq 0x100, %rax
mrmovq (%rax), %rcx
mrmovq (%rcx), %rdx
.pos 0x100
.quad 0x200
.pos 0x200
.quad 0xfe

should stall twice to take 10 cycles and result in

+----------------------- halted in state: ------------------------------+
| RAX:              200   RCX:               fe   RDX:          2000000 |

The following assembly (y86/mrmreasy.yo):

mrmovq 0x100, %rax
mrmovq 0x200, %rcx
mrmovq 0xfe, %rdx
.pos 0x100
.quad 0x200
.pos 0x200
.quad 0xfe

should not stall at all, take 8 cycles, and result in

+----------------------- halted in state: ------------------------------+
| RAX:              200   RCX:               fe   RDX:          2000000 |

3 Submit

Submit pipelab2.hcl on the submission page.

Copyright © 2016–2017 by Samira Khan, Luther Tychonievich, and Charles Reiss.
Last updated 2017-03-29 22:29:00