Unforunately, as of Sept 2019, Udacity is redirecting all the links to this course to an unrelated "Introduction to Python Programming" (without any actual risk of being exposed to any computer science) course). The link to https://classroom.udacity.com/courses/cs101/ seems to still work (but requires registering for a Udacity account to see it). The videos are all available (and were released under a Creative Commons license, so can be mirrored) on youtube (Playlist).
Each link is a PDF file. For HTML versions of the notes, see the course wiki.Unit 1
CS101: One Year Later (this blog post describes my experiences developing CS101 at Udacity)
I've written two introductory computer science books, but neither is too closely related to this course.
Dori-Mic and the Universal
(With Illustrations by Kim Dylla), 2014
A Tragicomic Tale of Combinatorics and Computability
for Curious Children of All Ages
"If only I had this book when I was a young student, I might have done
something useful with my life like discover a new complexity class
instead of dropping out and wasting my life on flipping pancakes,
playing with basic blocks, and eradicating polo."
Explorations in Language, Logic, and Machines
Introductory computer science coursebook, 2007-2012.
On-line version available from OTexts.org.