Karsten Nohl and David Evans|
Department of Computer Science
University of Virginia
Starbug and Henryk Plötz|
Chaos Computer Club
The security of embedded devices often relies on the secrecy of proprietary cryptographic algorithms. These algorithms and their weaknesses are frequently disclosed through reverse-engineering software, but it is commonly thought to be too expensive to reconstruct designs from a hardware implementation alone. This paper challenges that belief by presenting an approach to reverse-engineering a cipher from a silicon implementation. Using this mostly automated approach, we reveal a cipher from an RFID tag that is not known to have a software or micro-code implementation. We reconstruct the cipher from the widely used Mifare Classic RFID tag by using a combination of image analysis of circuits and protocol analysis. Our analysis reveals that the security of the tag is even below the level that its 48-bit key length suggests due to a number of design flaws. Weak random numbers and a weakness in the authentication protocol allow for pre-computed rainbow tables to be used to find any key in a matter of seconds. Our approach of deducing functionality from circuit images is mostly automated, hence it is also feasible for large chips. The assumption that algorithms can be kept secret should therefore to be avoided for any type of silicon chip.
Il faut qu’il n’exige pas le secret, et qu’il puisse sans inconvénient tomber entre les mains de l’ennemi.
([A cipher] must not depend on secrecy, and it must not matter if it falls into enemy hands.)
August Kerckhoffs, La Cryptographie Militaire, January 1883